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(tuberculosis) and alcoholism. His will provided for "a home for elderly infirm and destitute Hawaiians," which opened in Makiki in 1885. 93/
  • In 1876, the legislature authorized drainage of taro wetlands that were declared "insanitary." 94/
  • In 1879, the first artesian well for drinking, washing, and irritgation was drilled at Honouliuli, Oahu by James Campbell, foudner of the large, land-holding Campbell Estate. 95/
  • In 1882, the first water filtration plant was constructed at Nu'uanu, in Honolulu. 96/ Inspection of food and licensing of dairies began in Honolulu. 97/
  • In 1884, the first local government hospital, Malulani, was opened at Wailuku, Maui. 98/
  • In 1886, the first plantation hospital at Makaweli, Kauai was built by the Hawaiian Sugar Co. By 1890, there were 18,900 plantation employees and four plantation hospitals. 99/
  • In 1880, the government of King Kalakaua was so alarmed at the decline of the native Hawaiian population and the prevalence of squalor, insanitation, and morbidity, that the Board of Health issued a book in the Hawaiian language on Sanitary Instructions for Hawaiians, written by Walter Murray Gibson. 100/
  • About the same time, the Ho'oulu a Ho'ola Lahui Society was founded by the king and Queen Kapiolani t"to propagate and perpetuate the race." A home for destitute Hawaiians was established in Kaka'ako and the first Kapiolani Home for non0leprous children of leprous parents on Molokai opened next to the Kaka'ako Receiving Hospital. 101/
  • In 1890, the Kapiolani maternity Home for birthing of infants of native Hawaiian women opened in the renovated house of the queen's recently-deceased sister, Princess Kakaulike, in Makiki in Honolulu. 102/ This private hopsital was supported by contributions. Native women were not required to pay for their medical care until 1917, when non-Hawaiians were first admitted. 103

Overthrow of the Monarchy to the Present (1893-1983)

Population Changes

In 1893, with the dethronment of Queen Liliuokalani and the establishment of a non-elected Provisional Government by the haole business oligarchy, the native Hawaiins were already a minority in their homeland, although the pure Hawaiians still outnumbered the part-Hawaiians (see table in footnote). 104/ The controlling whites were the smallest minority, exceeded by the imported, non-voting Oriental laborers.

The contrast 90 years later, in 1983, is striking. Native Hawaiians are relatively an even smaller minority, with the part-Hawaiians far outnumbering the almost vanished pure Hawaiians. The white population has greatly increased, although still exceeded by all Orientals combined. 105/


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