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  • In 1918, during World War I, venereal diseases became reportable. 136/
  • In 1921, the Territorial Government established Waimano Home for the mentally-retarded and severely deformed. Statistics on the number of native Hawaiian patients institutionalized there are scheduled to be available in March 1983. 137/
  • In 1925, the first maternal and child care programs were started by the Board of Health. 138/
  • In 1930, the new Territorial mental health hospital opened at Kaneohe, Oahu with 541 patients. 139/
  • In 1936, a Crippled Children's Bureau and Office of Health Education were created in the Board of Health. 140/
  • In 1937, a separate Bureau of Vital Statistics was established. 141/
  • In 1938, the Hawaii Medical Service Association (HMSA), a private health insurance firm, was founded by the Territory's school teachers and social workers. HMSA is now open to all and by 1975 it had over 400,000 members. 142/
  • In 1967, the University of Hawaii School of Medicine accepted its first class of 25 students. None was a native Hawaiian. 143/


Mental Health Status of Native Hawaiians 144/

Native Hawaiians generally present the same variety and pattern of mental health problems as other groups in the State, according to a service and research project in Hawaii called Hale Ola o Ho'opakolea. 145/ (The efforts of this group will be described below.) One main difference, however, is that the native Hawaiians have "that unique set of problems associated with indigenous peoples living under a non-indigenous government." 146/ For instance, immigrants who are non-English speakers have a choice, usually, of returning to their respective countries to maintain their linguistic, cultural, and other ties, while native Hawaiians have no choice but to remain in Hawaii. Some native Hawaiians "perceive themselves as citizens of an unfairly defeated nation [and] some see themselves as an oppressed people." 147/

Native Hawaiians are a unique cultural group with long-standing traditional patterns of personal, family, and social behavior that still contribute to the identity and security of individuals in their daily lives. As a result, the causes of mental health problems, their perceptions by native Hawaiians, and the appropriate means by which they are resolved differ markedly from non-Hawaiians. 148/ The Hale Ola Project summarizes the situation as follows:

Pressures to successfully provide adequate income levels for families and stable jobs produce stresses among native Hawaiians and generate role and value

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