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children was a top priority for native Hawaiian parents.
In 1970, 4.3 percent of native Hawaiian men and 5.2 percent of native Hawaiian women were unemployed, compared to State figures of 2.6 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively. Of all native Hawaiian males over the age of 16, 76.4 percent were in the labor force in 1970, compared with the total State figure of 81.5 percent. Also in 1970, 47.9 percent of native Hawaiian women over the age of 16 were in the labor force, compared with 49 percent for the State as a whole.
A 1975 Census Update Survey estimated that the unemployment rate for native Hawaiians was 11.6 percent, compared to 6.5 percent for the State of Hawaii as a whole. The present rate is probably even higher. Other data for 1975 show that only 17.8 percent of native Hawaiian men have professional/managerial positions, while 53.6 percent are classified as blue collar workers.
In 1949, the proportion of native Hawaiian males in the lowest income brackets was above that for all other groups. Their median income for the same year was higher than the "all races" and Filipino groups but below that of the Chinese, Caucasian, and Japanese groups. By 1969, the situation of the native Hawaiians had improved somewhat. According to the U.S. Census, they were no longer over-represented in the lowest income categories.
According to the 1975 Census Update Survey, however, native Hawaiian personal income was still below the Caucasian and State-wide figures. Other data for 1977 show that the (civilian) median family income of pure Hawaiians was lower than the part-Hawaiian, Filipino, Caucasian, Japanese, and Chinese groups. The part-Hawaiian group was third lowest (Filipinos were second).
In 1975, over one-fourth (27 percent) of native Hawaiians were classified as below the poverty level. In 1982, the number of native Hawaiians on welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) and general assistance) was significantly higher than their relative share of the population.
The percent of native Hawaiian adults arrested in Hawaii in 1981 was higher than the native Hawaiian percentage share of the population. The percentage of native Hawaiians arrested for specific crimes was also larger for many types of crime than their share of the population.
The picture for native Hawaiian juveniles arrested is even more striking. Native Hawaiian juveniles comprised the largest percent of those arrested for each crime examined.
Infant mortality remains significantly higher for native Hawaiians compared to the other groups in Hawaii. Part-Hawaiians have a birth rate of 23.1, compared to 17.5 for full-Hawaiians and 19.5 for the State. Part-Hawaiians and full- Hawaiians also have a significantly higher rate of illegitimate births than the other ethnic groups.
Native Hawaiians have historically had a lower life expectancy than other groups in Hawaii. This trend continues—in 1970, the native Hawaiian life expectancy was 67.62 years, compared with an average for the State of 74.20 years.
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