From GrassrootWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Previous Page Next Page


Text Only

Japanese and Chinese enrollment increased dramatically from 1900 to 1911, while haole, Portuguese, and native Hawaiian enrollment increased only slightly. 11/

More public high schools were established—at Hilo in 1905, on Maui in 1913, and on Kauai in 1914. A public college of mechanical and agricultural arts was established in 1907 and was enlarged to become the College of Hawaii in 1912, and the University of Hawaii in 1920. 12/

The Hawaii educational system had made remarkable strides, yet more could be done. It was investigated by a mainland team under the direction of the Federal Commissioner of Education in 1920. The team's report criticized several aspects of the system and offered many recommendations: the average per capita expenditure for education was low; teachers were underpaid and there were too few of them; not enough was spent on maintenance of and supplies for schools; secondary schools needed to be expanded and to offer a wider curriculum (only 3 pupils of every 100 were then in public high schools); the university needed to be expanded; and junior high schools and public kindergartens needed to be created. 13/

Many of the survey's recommendations were adopted. One of the changes brought about was in the credentials necessary to become a teacher. The Commission recommended that only high school graduates be admitted to the Normal School and that the training period be extended to two years. At the time, eighth grade graduates were admitted for a four-year course and high school graduates received one year of training. 14/ In 1931, the Territorial Normal and Training School and the university's School of Education united to form the Hawaii Teachers College. 15/ The Laboratory Schools of this College became known for their innovative teacher training program. 16/

The federal survey also suggested that pupils be segregated in public schools according to their ability to use English correctly. This was based on the theory that the use of pidgin by (mainly) Oriental children would retard the progress of other students.

After 1920, the pressure for school segregation mounted. It was no longer possible for all Caucasian children to attend private schools, and the public schools were now about 60 percent Japanese and Chinese. 17/ Segregation by race was impossible because of the extensive interracial marriage that had already taken place. It would also not be possible to create separate schools just for haole students, since the "Hawaiians and Portuguese, constituting an overwhelming majority of voters, would never permit such a system." 18/

The Territory responded by creating the "English Standard" schools that required students to pass English entrance examinations to qualify for admission. At first, this duo. school system tended to segregate students by race. It discriminated mostly against Orientals and full-Hawaiians, depending on the location of the school. It also helped to perpetuate class distinctions and to emphasize social distinctions. However, these distinctions were lessened as time went on, and by the time the English Standard system was abolished in 1947, these schools were attended by more Japanese than haole students. 19/

During the life of this system, only a small minority of Hawaii's children attended English Standard schools. In 1941, less than 7 percent of the students enrolled in the public school system attended them, while the rest of the students attended regular public schools. 20/

Mainland teachers played a key role in Hawaii's education system. They stressed American culture and American values. They concentrated or. the tenets of democracy, freedom, patriotism, and equality. Such moral and philosophical ideas were in sharp


Previous Page Next Page