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Approximately 30 percent of the program's effort has been devoted to teaching the Hawaiian language at the elementary level. Teachers are native-speaking elders (kupuna) who are drawn from the community and trained in classroom management and instructional techniques. 30/ To date, the State Department of Education has completed curriculum guides for grades kindergarten through the sixth grade. 31/

The program began in 1980 and expanded from 35 schools in 1980-81 to 82 schools in 1982-83, with kupuna in 886 elementary classes. 32/ However, allocations from the State Legislature for kupuna salaries have been the same for the past three years, $201,960. Without more money, the program will be unable to expand horizontally (to mote districts) or vertically (to higher grade levels). 33/

Many parents and organizations are concerned about the lack of an integrated Hawaiian education program in the public schools. For example, during a public hearing in Hawaii on expanding the Hawaiian Studies Program, one person testified that:

We believe that the Hawaiian Studies program should not be an isolated "unit" taught at certain times in a child's school career, but rather should be an on-going integration of cultural concepts, knowledge, history, and language into the "regular" curriculum. 34/

Concerns were also voiced about the use of kupuna in the present program. The speaker noted that: in-service training for teachers is needed so that they can effectively use the contribution of the kupuna; the number of kupuna per school do not reflect the school population; there is a lack of money for supplies; there is no clear understanding of how kupuna are assigned to classrooms; and there is inadequate in-servicing for the kupuna themselves. 35/

Other Programs

Other educational programs exist in Hawaii that are directed specifically toward native Hawaiians. These programs are both publicly and privately financed.

One such program is the Hawaiian Learning Program at the University of Hawaii School of Social Work. This undergraduate and graduate training program has been federally-funded for five years by the Social Work Education Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health. Its purpose is to help and encourage native Hawaiians to become social workers with both professional skills and Hawaiian cultural values as a base for their training in helping fellow Hawaiians. Students take courses, work in practicum situations with native Hawaiian clients, families, or school children, and do research. Graduates of the program have gone on to work for organizations such as Alu Like, Inc., and other public and private social agencies in Hawaii. 36/

Alu Like, Inc., is a private, nonprofit organization that works toward native Hawaiian economic and social self-sufficiency. In 1978, Alu Like initiated a pilot project in conjunction with the Haleiwa Elementary School, the Department of Education Central District, and the Waialua Community Parent's Group. The project focused on teaching basics to all students through Hawaiian cultural concepts. Alu Like reports that "the impact has been significant, and the District has incorporated the concept into its regular program at Haleiwa and is utilizing the teaching materials elsewhere in the District." 37/

Other Alu Like educational programs include video presentations for classrooms. Presentations on Ohana in the Family and Ohana in the Classroom at one elementary school are "attempts to encourage the use of cultural approaches in learning which improve


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