Nhsc-v1-132

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nhsc-v1-132

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EDUCATION

NOTES

1/ Ralph S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume I, 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968), 106. (Hereinafter referred to as "Kuykendall, Volume I.")

2/ A comment received by the Commission from Violet Ku'ulei Ihara suggests that the Royal School was founded at the request of Kamehameha III. This may very well be true even though the works consulted here (including Fuchs, Daws, Liliuokalani, and Kuykendall) do not so state. 3/ Lawrence H. Fuchs, Hawaii Pono: A Social History (New York: Harcourt, Brace t, World, Inc., 1961), p. 264.

4/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 360. For more on the Hawaiian language, see "Language" section in chapter on "Native Hawaiian Culture," below.

5/ Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii's People, 3rd ed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1967), p. 87.

6/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 360.

7/ Fuchs, p. 264.

8/ Ibid., p. 265.

9/ Ibid. , p. 264.

10/ Ibid., pp. 265-266. Comments by Haunani-Kay Trask, et al., state that this exclusionary policy was "white supremacist" (p. 9 ). Fuchs states that: "When twenty-six Chinese boys applied in 1896, the trustees of Punahou, unwilling to adopt an extreme racist policy, were pleased to point to a new rule that no pupil could be admitted who was "incapable of using the English language as a medium of instruction, and quick to argue the advantages of the new free high school established in Honolulu only the year before. Punahou would remain exclusive, but never again exclusively haole. A few Orientals--though only a token--would be admitted" (p. 266).

11./ Fuchs, p. 268.

12/ Comment received from Robert C. Schmitt, p. 2.

13/ Fuchs, pp. 271-272.

14/ Ibid., p. 272.

15/ Ralph S. Kuykendall and A. Grove Day, Hawaii: A History, from Polynesian Kingdom to American Commonwealth (New York: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1948), p. 246.

16/ Comment received from Violet Ku'ulei Ihara, p. 2.

17/ Fuchs, p. 274.

18/ Ibid., p. 275.

19/ Ibid., p. 279.

20/ Ibid.

21/ Ibid., p. 283.

22/ A comment received from Violet Ku'ulei Ihara states that: "Criticisms on education are one-sided. Where are the opinions of teachers in tne field, administrators, parents, retirees?" (p. 2) The Commission did receive comments on this section from the Superintendent of the Hawaii Department of Education, and these comments are included at the end of this section.

23/ Dr. A. Leiomalama Solomon, Office of Hawaiian Affairs, Co-Chairperson, Education Committee, "Cross- Cultural Conflict Between Hawaiians

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