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32/ That the following quote is the author's speculation was pointed out by Violet Ku'ulei Ihara.

33/ Gavan Daws, Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands (New York: The MacHillan Company, 1968), p. 26.

34/ Ibid., p. 27.

35/ Merze Tate, The United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom: A Political History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), p. 1.

36/ Fuchs, p. 7,

37/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 29.

38/ Ralph S. Kuykendall and A. Grove Day, Hawaii: A History, from Polynesian Kingdom to American Commonwealth (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1948), p. 43.

39/ Daws, p. 56.

40/ Ibid., p. 57.

41/ Fuchs, p. 9.

42/ Daws, p. 59.

43/ Ibid., pp. 59-60.

44/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 100.

45/ Daws, p. 62.

46/ It was pointed out in a comment from Violet Ku'ulei Ihara that, contrary to what this quotation implies, "Hawaiians did prepare for spiritual hereafter." See also, the chapter below on "Native Hawaiian Religion," page 227.

47/ Fuchs, p. 9.

48/ Comments from Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, state the following: "While it is true that the missionaries were prohibited from acquiring land while they were members of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, they in fact began to acquire land in enormous quantities after they left the mission. Here, the bias towards the missionaries is extreme in this section for two reasons: they are removed of responsibility for bringing diseases and cultural degradation that hastened the decline of Hawaiians, and they are elevated to the point of actually appearing as redeemers of the people. The facts, however, are otherwise. Missionaries are responsible for taking land, bringing death and disease, and for imposing a foreign religion which severed the Hawaiians' relationship to the earth. They are the harbingers of colonialism in Hawaii, and their descendants controlled most of the sugar plantations—the Big Five corporations of Castle and Cooke, Alexander and Baldwin, and C. Brewer all had missionary connections. Moreover, there needs to be a discussion of the role of missionary-descended individuals in the overthrow of the monarchy, and particularly in the creation and functioning of the Provisional Government."

The text of the report has been revised by the Commission in an attempt to address Trask's concerns. As to the missionaries "bringing death and disease," most authors place the blame for this on the foreigners who arrived in Hawaii prior to the missionaries. For example, Fuchs states that: "Between Cook's visit and the arrival of the first missionary band from New England, disease, war, and famine had taker. nearly half of the population...Until the arrival of nine missionary doctors forty-two years after Cook's discovery, the natives were without protection against the new diseases" (Fuchs, p. 13).

49/ Kuykendall and Day, p. 77.

50/ Russ, The Hawaiian Revolution, p. 3.


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