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9/ Tape of radio program "Ka Leo Hawai'i," Catalog no. 24.65A, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Language Laboratory. [Mr. Kimura also submitted a tape recording and transcripts of Hawaiian language and interviews. The transcripts appear in the Appendix of this Report.]

10/ In Hawaiian you do not speak of coming from a place, but belonging to it, much as you belong to a family. The same word no (belong to) used to mean one is from a place is also used to say one "owns" land, as illustrated below:

No Hanalei 'o Kaleiheana.
(Kaleiheana is from Hanalei.)
belongs to - Hanalei - name
marker - Kaleiheana
No Kaleiheana 'o Hanalei.
(Kaleiheana "owns" Hanalei.)
belongs to - Kaleiheana - name
marker - Hanalei

The word no is technically a preposition in Hawaiian and there is no real word for "own." The word no is also one of a pair of prepositions, na being the other. Both these prepositions translate as "belonging to" in English. The preposition na is used for things that are more like disposable belongings such as tools, bowls, food, and even spouses. The preposition no is used for more intimate things that one cannot dispose of such as parts of one's body, one's name, one's parents, and things that envelope one like clothing. The contrast between the use of the two possessive prepositions no and na is part of a contrast between O-class or intimate and inalienable possessive terms and A-class or dominated alienable possessed terms. Then, the grammar of the language supports the contention held by some that ownership of land similar to ownership of cattle in the Western sense is not a Hawaiian concept and is foreign to Hawaiian speakers. Conversely, however, the concept of land as inalienable, enveloping, and, even as kin, is foreign to American thinking.

11/ Ke Aloha 'Aina (March 18, 1899): 2.

12/ Hawaiian tradition requires that one release one's attachment to a person who has died by urging him to pass on to join with others in the next world. One shows one's attachment, however, in recalling before the body shared experiences, joys, and sorrows, and even by chiding the person for leaving when so much remains to be done and enjoyed.

13/ Produced by the Bishop Museum, 1981.

14/ Almost all Hawaiians profess Christianity today and there is a strong Christian tradition in Hawai'i. This is not to say that there have not continued to be individuals who have rejected Christianity in favor of traditional Hawaiian religion, from the time of the arrival of the missionaries until today. The Hawaiian Christian tradition, however, coexists and has been blended with traditional Hawaiian beliefs, much like Buddhism and Shintoism are blended in Japan. Christianity and traditional Hawaiian beliefs can coexist quite well because traditionally Hawaiians recognize, the spiritual world to consist of beings of human-like natures connected to man and nature by genealogical links. The Christian deity, however, is not genealogically linked to mankind in the Christian tradition, but is representative of ultimate perfection. Traditional Hawaiian spirituality then fits into a Christian Hawaiian life,


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