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Japanese, Chinese, and Portuguese. Speakers of these other languages have the right, however, to return to their ancestral homes to cultivate their languages, a right not available to Hawaiians. The indigenous nature of Hawaiian has always been clear to ethnic groups other than the English speakers in Hawai'i, and non-Hawaiians have a history of supporting and learning Hawaiian, which is one reason for the relative strength of the language given the trying conditions it has had to endure.

29/ Anglo-Saxon, a language of complicated case endings and verb paradigms, lost these complications and much of its traditional vocabulary with subjugation of the English people by the Norman French in 1066. The invading French used their language in all areas of prestige, leaving Anglo-Saxon a despised language of the lower classes. Anglo-Saxon aesthetic culture did not fare well under the French and the weakening of the aesthetic culture resulted in a further lack of support for the base culture language. When the French influence finally ended and the English resumed control of prestige positions, the language that remained was a pidgin-like mixture of simplified Anglo-Saxon structure with an extensive French-derived vocabulary, changed in pronunciation from that used by the French. This once humble and despised broken language, however, has become quite respectable today as the English language and is used as a means of international communication. Hawai'i's pidgin is similar to English in that it derives from a simplified Hawaiian with a massive dose of foreign vocabulary and its origins lie in foreign domination of the Hawaiian people.

30/ A section on strengthening the Hawaiian language, also sent by OHA and written by Larry Kimura, appears in the Appendix of this Report, along with information on legal aspects, transcriptions of Hawaiian interviews, and testimony presented before the Native Hawaiians Study Commission. These documents were sent to the Commission by OHA after the incorporation of the Mr. Kimura's "Language" paper into the Commission's Final Report.

31/ National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, Sec. 101.(a)(1)(A).

32/ State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State Historic Preservation Plan, Technical Reference Document (Honolulu: Department of Land and Natural Resources, October 9, 1981), pp. 1-10-12.

33/ Ibid., pp. 11-35-36.

34/ Ibid., p. 11-11.

35/ Public Inquiries for copies of the National Register of Historic Places, or for information on the National Register, should be directed to:

Judy Bullock
National Register of Historic Places
440 G St., N.W.
Room 115
Washington, D.C. 20240

36/ Federal Register, Vol. 46, No. 220 (November 16, 1981), p. 56189.

37/ State Historic Preservation Plan, pp. A-38-39.

38/ Ibid., p. II-43.

39/ Ibid., pp. 11-57-58.

40/ See comments from Kenneth C. "Keneke" Chan and John J. Hall.


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