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3) The residual mana of sacred objects wrought by human intelligence as used in everyday economic life and in sacred shrine and temple rituals.

This leads the discussion of Hawaiian religion from this point into two directions: (1) toward an understanding of the forms of the gods (akua<, 'aumakua) as manifestations of mana in life's forms, inanimate and animate, or as their kinolau, that is, "many forms;" and (2) toward an understanding of the use of political power as the mana, or authority of chiefs to effect maintenance of this mana so as to keep it increasing for mankind's use and to prevent its decreasing from his grasp. This leads, then, ultimately to an understanding of how mana is retained as a result of the discreet use of kanawai, secular law, and kapu, sacred law, to inhibit negative transference or loss of available or necessary mana for retention of human mana as political or economic power.


This section will explore the relationship between the community worship of the chiefs and priests as a ruling class, and the practice of family ('ohana) worship in ancient pre-contact times (that is, before Captain Cook, 1778-1779), and post-contact times to post-conversion times (1620, arrival of American missionaries from New England), with fragmented continuation of aboriginal religious practices in family worship patterns today associated with introduced forms of worship. In order to handle this topic, it will be necessary to divide the discussion that follows into three sub-topics:

1) Variability in observed patterns of worship between classes, that is, as between chiefs and priests as one group, and commoners as another, or between men on one hand and women on another, or between followers or "true believers" on one hand, and resisters or "deviants" on another;
2) The overthrow of the kapu system in 1819 effecting defeat of the community worship of the chiefs and priests, without destruction of the active family practice of 'ohana worship persisting in family customs in the present society? and
3) The unifying effect of the kinolau concept of akua and 'aumakua identification in symbolic forms, abstract or concrete, linking community worship of the chiefs and priests on one hand to the family 'ohana religion on the other.

This discussion will then lead to the next section, which explores changes in the Hawaiian psyche, or duplicity of religious practice with or without harmful effects to personality and identity of the Hawaiian individual as a member of native Hawaiian or Hawaiian American society; and the duality of allegiance to traditional Hawaiian and to American (Christian) religion.

Variability in Worship Patterns

In the earliest account written by native Hawaiian scholars called the Mo'olelo Hawaii, for which principal authorship is often credited to David Malo (not exempting however other


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