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1/ David Malo, Hawaiian Antiquities (Moolelo Hawaii) (Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Special Publication 2, 1951), Second Edition, translated by Dr. Nathaniel b. Emerson (1898), p. 82.
2/ Urey Lisianski, Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806, Bibliotheca Australiana No. 42 (New York: Da Capo Press, 1968), pp. 84, 87, 120, and 127.
3/ See Rubellite K. Johnson, Kumulipo, Hawaiian Hymn of Creation, Volume I (Honolulu: Topgallant Publishing Co., Ltd., 1981); pp. 145- 14 to 145-19 of this volume were included in Professor Johnson's paper and are appended to this Report, in the Appendix containing the written comments received by the Native Hawaiians Study Commission.
4/ Malo, p. 82.
5/ Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel H. Elbert, Hawaiian Dictionary (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1971), p. 9.
6/ See A. I. Kroeber, Anthropology: Culture Patterns and Processes (New York: First Harbinger books, 1963). Pages 211-213 were included in Professor Johnson's paper and are appended to this Report, in the Appendix containing the written comments received by the Native Hawaiians Study Commission, as pages 145-21 to 145-22.
7/ Malo, p. 81.
8/ Henry Opukahaia, Memoirs of Henry Obookiah, A Native of Owhyhee, and a Member of the Foreign Mission School; Who Died at Cornwall, Connecticut February 17, 1818, Aged 26 Years, edited by Edwin Dwight (Honolulu: Published on the 150th Anniversary of his death, 1968), p. 7.
9/ Ibid., p. 28, Letter from Andover, dated December 15, 1812.
10/ The following paragraphs of Professor Johnson's paper appeared in her original paper at this point in text:
It is important here to realize what the curriculum was like at Lahainaluna Seminary between 1831 and 1850. The curriculum included the "hard" sciences and higher mathematics (geometry, trigonometry, navigation), geography (Biblical and world), anatomy, grammar in Hawaiian and English, and not purely religious subjects. The texts used were produced in Hawaiian at the school by translating from English and other language texts, but it is the calibre of the Hawaiian technical texts that astound present-day scientists. Evaluation of the Anahonua (Land Surveying) text in Hawaiian, as written by the Rev. Ephraim Clark, has been evaluated by Dr. E. Dixon Stroup, oceanographer (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii). Below is a facsimile of his evaluation:
- The Manual of Navigation is the last major division of Ke Anahonua, published in Hawaiian at Lahainaluna in 1834. It is the most technically advanced section in a book which begins with the basic definitions of geometry ("point," "line," and "plane"). The methods described include both dead reckoning and celestial navigation
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