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the community. Native Hawaiians have among the highest interracial marriage rates. This racial and ethnic mixture has affected the political sphere. Since the 1930's, no one ethnic group has had an electoral majority, although ethnic factors do play a role in politics in Hawaii.
  • The native Hawaiian people have a rich cultural heritage. An important part of that heritage is the Hawaiian language, as demonstrated by the attempts that are being made to revive and preserve it. Another key aspect of this cultural heritage is the native Hawaiian religion and its relationship to the needs of Native Hawaiians today. Historical preservation could play a greater role in preserving this heritage.

2. Federal, State, and Local Relationships

The Final Report of the Native Hawaiians Study Commission also analyzes issues related to Hawaiian history and land ownership. This information and analysis support the following conclusions:

  • The history of land ownership and tenure in Hawaii is unique and complex. In the mid-nineteenth century the king developed a process and had enacted a series of laws to change the ownership patterns to fee simple ownership. These laws, the way they were implemented, and other economic, social, and political forces in Hawaii at the time put a large amount of Hawaii's land in the hands of westerners by 1890.
  • Native Hawaiians have expressed concern about a number of specific legal questions that affect land ownership. Some of these questions, such as ownership problems arising from the exercise of kuleana land rights, are unique to Hawaii and will take time to resolve. Others, such as laws affecting rights to water and adverse possession, are similar to problems existing in many other states.
  • Hawaii has a long and rich history. As a separate sovereign nation, it developed, relations with the United States through treaties and other dealings prior to 1893. For example, treaties were developed between the two countries to facilitate trade and to serve the interests of those in Hawaii seeking economic development to improve the country's financial situation. The treaties also promoted the economic, security, and defense interests of the United States. In addition to these foreign policy considerations, tensions between the monarch and the legislature also affected Hawaiian politics during these years, as did efforts by the native Hawaiians to regain power from reformers. The culmination of these trends occurred in 1891 when Liliuokalani became queen and attempted to reassert the power of the throne against the legislature and the reformers.
  • In 1893 the monarchy was overthrown. The overthrow, and the lack of resistance by the queen and her cabinet, was encouraged in part by the presence of United States forces, consisting of one company of Marines and two companies of sailors (approximately 100 men), acting without express authority from the United States Government.

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