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To summarize the Commission's findings with regard to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy: Based upon the information available to it, the Commission concluded that Minister John L. Stevens and certain other individuals occupying positions with the U.S. Government participated in activities contributing to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy on January 17, 1893. The Commission was unable to conclude that these activities were sanctioned by the President or the Congress. In fact, official government records lend strony support to the conclusion that Minister Stevens' actions were not sanctioned.

Besides the findings summarized above, the Commission concludes that, as an ethical or moral matter, Congress should not provide for native Hawaiians to receive compensation either for loss of land or of sovereignty. Reviewing the situation generally, including the historical changes in Hawaii's land laws and constitution before 1893, the Hawaiian political climate that led to the overthrow, the lack of authorized involvement by the United States, and the apparent limited role of United States forces in the overthrow, the Commission found that on an ethical or moral basis, native Hawaiians should not receive reparations. In reaching this conclusion, the Commission did not find the Hawaiian circumstances analogous to the time when Congress voted payments to Colombia, as a result of the U.S. role in Panama. Those payments were based, in part, on the breach of commitments by the United States Government under an 1846 treaty guaranteeing to Colombia the "right of sovereignty and property" over the Isthmus of Panama, and, in part, on commitments owed to Colombia pursuant to certain contracts.

Nevertheless, the Commission strongly recommends that the issue of reparations not impede the important steps that should be taken now to improve the condition of native Hawaiians. Based on the information it has collected, the Commission believes that the social and economic problems of native Hawaiians deserve immediate action and that these needs should be addressed promptly.


Based on its findings, the Commission would recommend consideration of early action in the following areas:

  • Additional educational and training opportunities to better equip native Hawaiians for employment.
  • Information services and technical assistance to assist both job applicants and small business concerns.
[These measures should help deal with problems involving education, unemployment, crime, and alcohol and drug abuse, which appear to be related.]
  • Additional nutrition education programs and research to assist in reducing incidence of disease and accidents, and to reduce mortality rates.
  • Specific assistance to native Hawaiians in finding housing.
  • Continued efforts to offer opportunities for native Hawaiians to learn about and develop a sense of pride in their culture.

Steps can be taken by private individuals and organizations and by governments at all levels to address these areas of concern. The Commission feels that private groups


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