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Macfarlane's salary was finally paid when the Hawaiian Supreme Court decided against the cabinet on February 26, 1890. The Court "held, that the appointment of Chamberlain was personal to His Majesty, and did not require the approval of the Cabinet" and "that the salary of the office follows the title to it." 126/

The 1888 law concerning military forces, passed over the king's veto, was an additional concern for the king. V. V. Ashford was nominated to have a controlling power in the military. The British Commissioner wrote at this time that: "Colonel Ashford has recently made himself so notorious that he has lost the support of his party, and a considerable portion of the 'Rifles.'" 127/ Despite this, Ashford won the nomination, but the king refused to sign it, remembering Ashford's part in the events leading to the 1887 Constitution. The cabinet bypassed the king once again by saying Ashford was "constructively in command" without the signed certificate. (It should be noted here that Ashford's loss of favor with the reformists eventually led him into the camp of the opposition later on.)

The series of events chronicled above created the conditions that led to the insurrection of July 30, 1889. This insurrection was led by the same Robert W. Wilcox who was considered "the principal leader of the agitation among the Hawaiians" during 1887-88. 128/ Princess Liliuokalani had befriended and supported Wilcox during this period until his departure from Hawaii for the United States in early 1888. On his return to Hawaii in April 1889, Liliuokalani again befriended Wilcox and gave him permission to live in her unoccupied Palama residence. Sometime in June, Wilcox held the first of seven meetings in which the insurrection was planned. 129/

At the first meeting (consisting of "a small group of men, all haoles") Wilcox formed a secret society called "the 'Liberal Patriotic Association,' of which Wilcox was president and the Belgian Albert Loomens was vicepresident, its stated purpose being to restore the former system of government and the former rights of the king." 130/ The movement was believed to be largely financed by the Chinese and it was not until the fifth meeting that, "for the first time, native Hawaiians were admitted." 131/

The king and cabinet were warned of Wilcox's actions by both the American and British Ministers in early July. 132/ Despite this warning, British Commissioner Wodehouse wrote: "Meetings still continue to be held at the Princess's residence by Mr. Wilcox, who is purchasing arms wherever he can get them. It is strange that he is not arrested." 133/ The Hawaiian government made no arrangements to meet this crisis, in spite of its knowledge of Wilcox's activities. This inaction may be explained by American Minister Merrill's statement of August 1, 1889, that:

...it was recently ascertained on what seemed very reliable authority that no overt acts would be committed prior to the next general election in February, when it was thought the present ministers would be defeated at the polls. 134/

Wilcox, however, did not wait and on July 30, 1889, marched with his followers on Iolani Palace and occupied the grounds. Kalakaua was not at the palace and could not be enticed by Wilcox to return there. According to one author, Wilcox's objectives in this action were to "(1) replace the Constitution of 1887 with one similar to that of 1864; and (2)


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