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their aims, as some of the cabinet members had been invited to join the Executive Council of the Committee. Still they made no move to halt the proposed revolution. Dr. William Alexander, an observer of the events, concluded:

To judge from their conduct, the Queen's Cabinet was overawed by the unanimity and determination of the foreign community, and probably had an exaggerated idea of the force at the command of the Committee of Safety. They shrank from the responsibility of causing fruitless bloodshed, and sought a valid excuse for inaction, which they thought they found in the presence of the United States troops on shore, and in the well known sympathy of the American Minister with the opposition. 196/

By 2:30 on the afternoon of the 17th, the Committee had completed its preparations and began moving toward its objectives. Within fifteen minutes, the Committee of Safety had quietly taken control of the Government Building, which was virtually empty when they arrived. A proclamation was read from the steps by H. E. Cooper, designated vice-president of the new government, and the first phase of the revolution was accomplished as the Committee of Safety became the Provisional Government.

The new Provisional Government moved into the building and got down to work. Martial law was declared, all saloons were ordered to be closed, and messengers were sent to the diplomatic community to inform them of the change in government and to request recognition. Between four and five o'clock, a message was delivered to Dole from Stevens:

A Provisional Government having been duly constituted in the place of the recent Government of Queen Liliuokalani and said Provisional Government being in full possession of the Government Building, the Archives and the Treasury and in control of the capital of the Hawaiian Islands, I hereby recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands. 197/

Other foreign ministers followed suit within days. Armed with Stevens' support, members of the Provisional Government called on the queen and demanded her resignation. After much protest, the queen yielded and signed the following document:

I, Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the constitutional government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a provisional government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the said provisional government. Now to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in

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