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population is a matter of conjecture, since none of Hawaii's constitutions called for a popular vote on annexation. Treaties were left to the head of state with approval of the legislature, 252/ as set forth in Article 32 of the 1894 Hawaiian Constitution. The proposed annexation treaty of 1854 was initiated by the king, a native Hawaiian. This proposal failed when he died and the new king rejected the treaty. 253/

One native Hawaiian was present and voted for the Hawaiian Senate resolution that ratified the Annexation Treaty of 1897 between the United States and Hawaii. 254/ This final act in Hawaiian participation in the treaty ratification process took place in a Special Session of the Senate of the Republic of Hawaii in September, 1897. On the first day of the session, September 8th, President Dole listed the following reasons for annexation: (1) a growing menace to the population by immigration; (2) the threat of great naval powers; (3) need for United States' development of resources; and (4) it was in the best interests of all people of Hawaii. 255/ A protest resolution was also submitted to the Hawaiian Senate, signed by fifteen natives, stating that a mass meeting had been held confirming that "the native Hawaiians and a large majority of the People of the Hawaiian Islands" were against annexation. 256/ On the second day of the session a report was submitted by the Committee on Foreign Relations endorsing the ratification of the proposed treaty of annexation and agreeing with the reasons for annexation presented by President Dole the day before. This report was signed by the committee, including J. Kauhane, a native Hawaiian, on September 9, 1897. 257/

The same committee also submitted a report on the native Hawaiians' protest, in which the committee concluded that it was based more on sentiment than real opposition and recommended that the protest be laid on the table, which it was. This report was also signed by the committee, including J. Kauhane, on September 9, 1897. 258/ The Hawaiian resolution for ratification of the annexation treaty was unanimously adopted by the Senate the same day. 259/ One of those senators voting to adopt the ratification resolution was J. Kauhane, who was also Vice-President of the Senate. Senator Kauhane was the only native Hawaiian who signed the annexation ratification resolution, 260/ the only instrument relating to annexation other than the Treaty of 1897.

In the Congressional debate on annexation, Representative Bland was asked directly whether "the Senate of Hawaii which ratified the treaty is composed largely of native Hawaiians?" The answer was: "Oh, Mr. Speaker, I am not speaking of natives or foreigners. There are a few white natives." 261/

Providing further evidence of lack of "native" participation in annexation proceedings was the so-called "monster petition" of 1897 262/ signed by approximately 29,000 native Hawaiians protesting annexation by the United States. This petition was investigated by the United States Congress and the subsequent report indicated that many names on it were fraudulent. 263/ A large portion of the 29,000 names on the list remained, however, and they represented the vast majority of the 31,000 "native Hawaiians" living on the islands. 264/ This figure may be compared with the 3,196 actual voters in the first election under the 1894 Constitution held in 1896, and the 2,687 voters for representatives in 1897. 265/

Congressional debate on annexation is filled with comments to the effect that it was known that most, if not


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