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all, native Hawaiians opposed annexation. 266/ Senator Caffery informed the Senate on June 28, 1898, that "the people of Hawaii do not want annexation...When I speak of the people of Hawaii I speak of the native Hawaiians." 267/ He then submitted documents concerning an 1893 interview with a white Hawaiian born in the islands in 1850. This gentleman stated that if an annexation vote had been taken "it would be overwhelmingly defeated—almost to a man by the native Hawaiians..." 268/

The Organic Act, passed by the United States Congress, opened the way for an open electorate in Hawaii. With this development, Hawaiians sent to the U.S. Congress their first delegate, Robert Wilcox, a home rule advocate and leader of native Hawaiian insurrections in 1889 and 1895. Hawaii's first Territorial Legislature of 1901 was also composed largely of native Hawaiians and Home Rule advocates who proceeded to protest annexation by delaying bills, failing to pass the appropriation bill, and calling for Governor Dole's removal due to incompetence. 269/


Hawaii was admitted to statehood in 1959 after more than sixty years as a territory. This section of the report includes a discussion of Hawaii's admission, a statement of Hawaii's boundaries at statehood, and a comparison of the history of admission with the admission history of several other states. The selected states, in the order of their statehood, are: Louisiana, Florida, Texas, Oregon and Alaska.

Under the Constitution, the acquisition of new territory was achieved by treaties with foreign nations, except for Texas and Hawaii, which were annexed by joint resolution. The usual course after annexation was the establishment of a territorial government, the adoption of a state constitution and government, and the request for admission. A few states did not establish territorial governments: Texas, Florida and California. 270/

Certain other requirements also became standard for statehood:

(1) The inhabitants of the proposed new State are imbued with and are sympathetic toward the principles of democracy as exemplified in the American form of government.
(2) A majority of the electorate wishes statehood.
(3) The proposed new State has sufficient population and resources to support State government and at the same time carry its share of the cost of the Federal Government. 271/

While the move to incorporate the Hawaiian territory into the United States was an important step toward statehood, it was not an assurance for its realization. The extended period of time in which the islands remained in territorial status was notable, but it was not unique to Hawaii. Alaska experienced the same delay in achieving statehood. There were also other states with long territorial periods: Utah, 46 years; Arizona, 49 years; and New Mexico, 62 years. 272/

History of Hawaiian Statehood

Hawaii was annexed to the United States by Joint Resolution No. 55, July 7, 1898 (30 Stat. 750). The legislative record indicated that the


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