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1/ Ethel M. Damon, Sanford Dole and His Hawaii (Palo Alto, Calif.: Published for Hawaiian Historical Society by Pacific Books, 1957), p. 141.

2/ Kathleen Dickenson Mellen, An Island Kingdom Passes (New York: Hasting House Publishers, 1958), pp. 8-10.

3/ Ibid., p. 14.

4/ Paul Bailey, Kings and Queens of Old Hawaii (Los Angeles, Calif.: Westernlore Press, 1975), p. 267.

5/ Ibid.

6/ Mellen, p. 36.

7/ Damon, p. 141.

8/ Eugene Burns, The Last King of Paradise (New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1952), p. 156.

9/ Ibid.

10/ Act of January 30, 1875, 19 Stat. 625-626.

11/ Charles C. Tansill, The Foreign Policy of Thomas F. Bayard (New York: Fordham University Press, 1940), p. 370.

12/ Ibid.

13/ Burns, p. 157.

14/ Edward Joesting, Hawaii: An Uncommon History (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc, 1972), p. 211.

15/ Ibid., pp. 211-212.

16/ Bailey, p. 269.

17/ Congressman Daniel Akaka, in his comments on the Commission's Draft Report, questions the interpretation in the Draft Report of events during Kalakaua's reign because of the emphasis placed on the role of Walter Gibson. He states: "If Gibson was in fact so important a figure, why was his participation in events ignored in first-hand accounts of the period...?" (Akaka'8 Comments, p. 5 ) . He adds: "I seriously question this interpretation of history and the emphasis placed on Gibson's influence with the monarchy" (Akaka's comments, p. 5.)

Walter Gibson's influence on the monarchy ended with his departure from Hawaii on July 12, 1887. He died shortly afterwards in the United States on January 24, 1888. (K. D. Mellen, An Island Kingdom Passes, pp. 200 and 212, (1958)). James H. Blount arrived in Hawaii for the first time on April 6, 1893 (Dispatch No. 1, Spec. Comm.). His duties, upon arrival in Hawaii, were to concentrate on taking and compiling evidence and testimony on the 1893 downfall of the Hawaiian Monarchy and formation of the Provisional Government, as well as the state of affairs in Hawaii at the time (E. M. Damon, Sanford Dole and His Hawaii, p. 258 (1957); Gresham to Blount, Correspondence No. 1, March 11, 1893 printed in H. Ex. Doc. No. 47, 53rd Cong., 2nd Sess. (1893)). It is self-explanatory that Blount himself could not have been the author of any first-hand account of the Kalakaua/Gibson era. Indeed, the scope of Blount's duties did not include any need to investigate this period.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, it can be pointed out that the Blount dispatches did discuss Gibson's participation in the events of the Kalakaua era. Not only did Blount


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