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discuss Gibson, but he took testimony of first-hand accounts from people who were present in Hawaii at the time Gibson was, and who knew him.

Blount's papers include an interview he had with Hawaiian Chief Justice A. F. Judd on May 16, 1893 (Interview No. 28, p. 371 of Blount's report in House Ex. Doc. No. 47, 53d Cong. 2d Sess. (Dec. 18, 1893)). The questions were asked by Blount, himself, concerning Gibson and his power.

Q. Did Gibson use the race feeling to obtain power, and to maintain himself in it?
A. He did; and he also used flattery to the King to exalt his position. He fostered in the King's mind the idea of proclaiming himself emperor of the Pacific in connection with the Samoan affair.

The interview Blount had with M. M. Scott on April 10, 1893 went even further. It implied that Gibson's policies and influence not only caused the 1887 revolution, but that the impact of these policies were evident even in 1893 (Interview No. 46, Ibid., p. 488 (1893)). Blount again conducted the interview personally.

Blount: What I want to know is this: Whether or not prior to 1887, and down to the revolution the controversies followed racial lines.
Scott: This present revolution?
Blount: Yes, were the contests generally parallel with racial lines?
Scott: They were.
Blount: Did these contests, parallel to what we have termed racial lines, grow out of the difference of opinion on questions of taxation or questions of taxation and legislation? How did they grow?
Scott: No, they grew out of the office. Mr. Gibson advised it.
Blount: Please bring that out.
Scott: In the spring of 1882, when they held the election here, he advised it. He was the originator of the phrase "Hawaii for Hawaiians." He was a man of marked ability. He was the president of the board of education. He made speeches couched in careful language when the foreigners would see or hear them. He spoke Hawaiian well. His cry was "Hawaii for Hawaiians." He said to the people, the missionary has not been your friend. He leaves no outlet for you. He does not wish you to hold office. He [Gibson] puffed up Kalakaua with the idea that he could be emperor of all the Pacific Islands.

Regarding this and other comments, Blount sent a dispatch (Blount to Gresham, Correspondence No. 17, July 17, 1893, pp. 107-108, in H. Ex. Doc. No. 47, 53d Cong., 2d Sess. (1893)) which stated:

The great stir in Cabinet changes commenced with the Gibson Cabinet in 1882. He was a man of large information, free from all suspicions of bribery, politically ambitious, and led the natives and some whites...

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