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which the United States "condoned, participated in or enjoyed the benefits of the coercive activities of the American expatriate group" which is alleged to be chiefly responsible for the 1887 Constitution (Comments by Senator Daniel K. Inouye on the Draft Report of Findings of the Native Hawaiians Study Commission, pp. 14-15 (November 23, 1982)). This section is added to explain that role.

58/ Ralph S. Kuykendall, Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume III, The Kalakaua Dynasty, 1874-1893 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1967), p. 350. Hereinafter referred to as "Kuykendall, Volume III."

59/ Kuykendall, Volume III, pp. 351-352.

60/ Sanford B. Dole, Memoirs of the Hawaiian Revolution, (Honolulu: Advertiser Publishing Co., Ltd., 1936), p. 48; cited by Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 352.

61/ Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 352. The foregoing information is not contained in James H. Blount's 1893 report. Neither Clarence Ashford "nor Volney Ashford, in the statement which he wrote for Commissioner Blount, say anything about the Honolulu Rifles and their part in the Revolution of 1887" (Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 704, note 27). This is a critical omission in light of the pivotal role of the Honolulu Rifles with respect to the adoption of the 1887 Constitution. Specifically, the Honolulu Rifles patrolled the streets of Honolulu and arrested Walter Gibson, Kalakaua's premier, just prior to the king's assent to the formation of the cabinet government. Kalakaua, who had called out the Rifles himself on June 30, 1887, to keep order, had unwittingly given official sanction to an army that he discovered shortly afterwards was unreliable. Fear of the worst convinced the king to sign.

Obviously, concealment of the data from Blount was beyond his control. The salient point is that the absence of this information from Blount's report, for whatever reason, tends to make it much less authoritative than its proponents contend it is.

62/ Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 703, footnote 9.

63/ Ibid., pp. 348-349.

64/ House Ex. Doc. No. 47, 53 Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 203; cited in Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 348, footnote.

65/ Ibid., p. 348, footnote.

66/ Quoted in A. D. Baldwin, A Memoir of Henry Perrine Baldwin, 1842-1911 (Cleveland, 1915), pp. 55-56; cited in Kuykendall, Volume III, pp. 348-349, footnote.

67/ Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 349, footnote. Emphasis added.

68/ Blount Report, H. Ex. Doc. No. 47, 53d Cong., 2d Sess., p. 331 (1893).

69/ Kuykendall, Volume III, p. 348.

70/ Ibid., p. 347; and Enclosure No. 5 to Dispatch No. 124 (Petition of American Citizens to Merrill), U.S. Department of State Archives, Dispatches, Hawaii (also in National Archives, Microcopy No. T-30, Roll 23). The names of only three members of the Committee of Thirteen appear on the petition of American citizens. Presumably, if there had been more than three American nationals on the Committee, the names of more than three members of the Committee would have appeared on the petition. This assumption is supported by the fact that the Hawaiian League-sponsored


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