Nhsc-v1-366

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an individual native of the Philippines found to have been segregated from public lands of the prior sovereign, Spain, and held protected under the Philippine Organic Act). See also, State of New Mexico v. Aamodt, 537 F.2d 1102, 1108- 1109 (10th Cir. 1976), cert, denied, 429 U.S. 1121 (1977) (Pueblo grants under Spanish and Mexican law). Under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 the resolution of the existence of the Alaska Natives' claims did not rest on the existence of a valid claim under Russian law. Aleut Community of St. Paul Island v. United States, 27 Ind.Cl.Comm. 177, 181 (1972), aff'd, 202 Ct.Cl. 182 (1973).

149/ Barker v. Harvey, 181 U.S. 481, 498 (1901); Interstate Land Company v. Maxwell Land Grant Company, 139 U.S. 569, 588 (1891); and Fremont v. United States, 58 U.S. (17 How.) 542, 560-562 (1854). Cf. United States v. Chaves, 159 U.S. 452, 464 (1895); Hornsby v. United States, 77 U.S. (10 Wall.) 224, 238 (1869); and United States v. Pico, 72 U.S. (5 Wall.) 536, 540 (1866).

150/ See discussion above, p. 342.

151/ See discussion above, p. 342.

152/ United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, 448 U.S. 371, 415, note 29 (1980).

153/ Cf. Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma v. United States, supra, 35 Ind. Cl.Comm. at 339.

154/ See, e.g., United States v. Creek Nation, 295 U.S. 103, 109-110 (1935); United States v. Klamath and Modoc Tribes of Indians, 304 U.S. 119, 124-125 (1938); and cf. Coast Indian Community v. United States, 213 Ct.Cl. 129, 147-148 (1977)).

155/ 31 Stat, at 159. [Emphasis added.]

156/ United States v. Fullard-Leo, et a.., 66 F. Supp. 782, 787 (D.C. Hawaii, 1944), aff'd 156 F.2d 756 (9th Cir. 1946), aff'd, 331 U.S. 256 (1947). [Emphasis added.]

The cited language shows that under Section 91 of the Organic Act the Territory of Hawaii was not merely an agent of the United States; therefore, such "agency" does not form the basis for a Fifth Amendment taking of the Government lands. Also, Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co. v. Territory of Hawaii, 305 U.S. 306 (1938), on which commenter relies makes reference only to Section 33 of the Organic Act, but no reference to Sections 73 or 91 of the Act.

157/ See 25 U.S.C. § 70(k). Similarly, the native Hawaiians cannot obtain compensation under Section 2 of the Indian Claims Commission Act because such claims must have been filed by 1951.

159/ MacKenzie, pp. 57, 61-62.

159/ United States v. Wheeler, 435 U.S. 313, 322-323 (1978). As to the applicability of principles of Indian law to native Hawaiians, see footnote 165, below.

160/ 435 U.S. at 326.

161/ 435 U.S. at 326. See also Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe, et al., 435 U.S. 191, 195 and 208-212 (1978).

162/ Montana v. United States, 450 U.S. 544, 564 (1981), rehearing denied, 452 U.S. 911 (1981).

163 450 U.S. at 564

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