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ancestors were natives of the area which consisted of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778." 8/ Confusion arises, particularly in an historical overview, between full-Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians, and Hawaiians of 50 percent blood quantum of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778 (the definition for inclusion in the Hawaiian Home Lands program).
For the purposes of this Report, the Commission has decided that the following definitions will always apply, 9/ unless otherwise noted in the text:
- Hawaiian or full-Hawaiian: Pureblooded Hawaiian;
- Part-Hawaiian: Any individual of mixed blood whose ancestors were natives of Hawaii prior to 1778;
- Native Hawaiian(s): ^J Either full- or part-Hawaiian; in the plural, the combination of both groups as defined above*
Historical Background **/
The period after the arrival of Captain Cook, from 1778 to 1850, was one of sweeping changes in the Hawaiian Islands. The native population declined drastically as result of declining birth rates and high mortality rates. Urban centers grew up around Honolulu, Hilo, and Lahaina as trade with foreigners increased. Native Hawaiian men signed up as sailors on foreign ships, never to return. Foreigners began to take up residence on the islands, and the first indentured laborers arrived.
The changes from 1850 to 1900 were no less drastic. The population decline of the islands as a whole was arrested and began a rapid increase, swelled by thousands of immigrant laborers. The composition of the population (age, sex, race, marital status) was dramatically altered, however, as the native population continued its decline. Constitutional government was introduced, and the system of land ownership was changed. By the end of this period, the monarchy did not even exist, replaced in 1894 by a caretaker Republic awaiting annexation to the United States.
The period from 1900 to 1960 covers Hawaii's territorial years. The full-Hawaiian population continued its decline, while there was a dramatic increase in the part-Hawaiian population as inter-marriage among Hawaii's ethnic groups increased. Large numbers of immigrant laborers continued to enter Hawaii in the first half of the period. The second half saw a great increase in the number of U.S. military personnel. From 1960 to 1980, the change from an agricultural economy to a service economy is clearly evident. The native Hawaiian population continued to increase, and a Hawaiian "cultural revival" began.
V When discussing the beneficiaries of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, however, "native Hawaiian" refers to those descendants of not less than one-half-part blood of the races that inhabited the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778.
**/ For a more complete history, see Part I, "Ancient History to the Reciprocity Treaty," and Part II, "Diplomatic and Congressional History: From Monarchy to Statehood."
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