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but both islands also had their isolated districts where native culture was able to survive to a considerable degree. The expansion of plantations during the last half of the nineteenth century reduced the area within which native Hawaiians could maintain numerical and cultural dominance. The lonely islands of Niihau, Lanai, and Molokai remained relatively free of foreign influence until after annexation. By 1930, there were 17 remote districts in which native Hawaiians constituted more than 50 percent of the population.

The situation had not changed substantially by 1950, as reflected in the census reports. Although the 1960 census did not provide similar data (except for Oahu), a clearly disproportionate ratio of native Hawaiians in all of the larger census divisions where they appear indicates that the rural native havens still remained. The centers of native Hawaiian concentration were still in the underdeveloped areas of Kohalo and Kona on the island of Hawaii, of Hana on Maui, of Koolauloa on Oahu, parts of Molokai, and Niihau. However,

More important in the total experience of the natives than the survival of a few thousand persons in these isolated pockets on the edges of the expanding Western world has been the gradual absorption of the Hawaiians in that expanding world. Each new census has told the story of a larger proportion of the natives who have been drawn within the orbit of the commercial economy centering in the port towns and cities. 23/

Honolulu emerged as the dominant center. As the century advanced, Honolulu drew a higher proportion of the total native Hawaiian population. Between 1853 and 190 0 the proportion of pure Hawaiians increased from 14.5 percent to 28.1 percent. In 1950, slightly more than 40 percent of the surviving 12,000 "pure" Hawaiians lived in Honolulu.

Part-Hawaiians have been even more strikingly products of the city, as they continue to constitute a greater proportion of residents in Honolulu than is true for the total population. The 1960 census seemed to show a curious reversal of this trend, since the proportion of both full-and part-Hawaiians resident in Honolulu dropped from the 1950 total. On the other hand, the proportion of both groups resident on the island of Oahu had continued to increase steadily until 1960, which suggests that the attraction of the city still operated, but that there was a preference for the suburban and peripheral areas outside the city proper.

Paradoxically, the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act had the effect of assisting this urban trend. The demand for urban sites, particularly on Oahu, far outweighs that for agricultural sites.

1960 to 1980

Information received from the U.S. Department of Labor confirms that the majority of native Hawaiians, like the majority of all Hawaii residents, lives on the island of Oahu (see Table11). Seventy percent of the native Hawaiian population of the six largest islands lives on Oahu, compared with 79 percent for the population as a whole. Besides Niihau (whose population is almost totally native Hawaiian), the island of Molokai has the largest native Hawaiian population, which constitutes 57.3 percent of its total.


Prior to the contact with Westerners that was to change their lifestyle, the Hawaiian population


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