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Advancement in the professions is one of the "most sensitive gauges of advancing prestige on the part of the several ethnic groups." 45/ The advantage that those in the haole group enjoyed is evident in Table 16. The advantage that native Hawaiians, especially part-Hawaiians, enjoyed in the professions during earlier census periods largely disappeared before 1940. In 1930, there were more judges, lawyers and teachers in Honolulu who were Hawaiian and part- Hawaiian than any other group. Yet, the vast majority of native Hawaiians in Honolulu had lesser occupational roles. 46/ Chinese, on the other hand, greatly increased their representation in the professions from 1930. 47/
Native Hawaiians have always been less than proportionally represented in occupations of commerce, although part-Hawaiians have apparently made a better adjustment than pure Hawaiians. One reason for this may be that important elements in the native Hawaiian culture hampered success in business on the part of Hawaiians. Noted Hawaiian sociologist Romanzo Adams speculated on the causes of the situation in the 1930's:
- ...the old Hawaiians had no commerce and probably not even barter...The introduction of profit seeking trade by foreigners brought from the outside world certain commodities that the Hawaiians greatly desired and hence they, under the tutelage of foreigners, did gradually enter upon a commercial economy. But, so far [i.e., 1937], they have not brought their mores into full harmony with such an economy...To an old-fashion Hawaiian, the practices of the hard-boiled business man are immoral. One would be ashamed to drive a hard bargain based on another man's necessity...48/
This gap is gradually diminishing among ethnic groups, as Table 17 illustrates. Native Hawaiians, especially those of mixed ancestry, revealed special aptitude as craftsmen, including the operation and handling of machinery. 49/
1960 to 1980
Employment levels and types are closely related to educational levels. The educational problems noted above presage the employment picture for native Hawaiians. According to the 1970 U.S. Census, 4.3 percent of native Hawaiian men and 5.2 percent of native Hawaiian women in the civilian labor force were unemployed in 1970 (see Table 18). These figures compare with 2.6 percent for men and 3.7 percent for women for the State of Hawaii overall. The unemployment rate for native Hawaiian men was also higher than the average U.S. rate. The comparable figures for the United States as a whole were 3.9 percent and 5.2 percent for men and women, respectively. 50/
The unemployment rate for native Hawaiian males was significantly higher than that for the Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and White groups. Japanese men had the lowest unemployment rate at 1.4 percent. Native Hawaiian women also had a higher unemployment rate than other ethnic groups, except for the White group.
The percent of native Hawaiian males in the labor force, 76.4 percent, was similar to that for the Chinese, Filipinos, and the average, U.S. rate. It was lower than the percentage for the State as a whole, 81.5 percent, for Japanese, 79.7 percent, and for Whites, 86 percent. However, it should be noted that almost 45 percent of the White male labor force was in the armed forces.
The unemployment picture for native Hawaiians in 1975 is shown in Table 19, based on data from the 1975 Census
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