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- Approximately one out of five Caucasians (21 percent) and Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (20.9 percent) are current marijuana users. 87/
Approximately 5.3 percent of Hawaii's general population age 12 and over are drug abusers. 88/ Of these drug abusers, 49.1 percent are Caucasian and 22.3 percent are Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. As with alcohol abuse, Caucasians and Hawaiians/part- Hawaiians are the groups most at risk for a drug abuse problem, relative to their respective population sizes. (See Table 39 for the ethnic composition of Hawaii's drug-abusing population.)
Table 39 also shows, by ethnic group, the drug abusing population that is receiving treatment. Overall, all drug abusers are underserved since only 1.8 percent of the drug abusers in need of services were in treatment in fiscal year 1979-80. 89/ Comparing their percentage in treatment with their percentage in the drug-abusing population, Caucasians were underserved, while Hawaiians and part- Hawaiians were overserved.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Of the 12,163 persons (1.7 percent of Hawaii's general population) who abuse both alcohol and drugs, 49 percent are Caucasians, and 22.8 percent are Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. Relative to their population size, Caucasians, Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians, and Portuguese are most at risk for an alconol/drug-abuse problem. 90/ (See Table 4 0.)
Birth rates in Hawaii were low in the nineteenth century. The fertility rate could not keep pace with the episodic arrival of epidemics and disease. In 1980,. Hawaii's death rate was 5.0, down a little troin the 1960-1965 figure of 5.5. The birth rate for the State decreased from 27.3 in 1965 to 18.6 in 1980.
Infant mortality has remained higher for native Hawaiians than for the other groups in Hawaii in the twentieth century, even though it has been steadily declining. In 1963, the infant mortality rate for Hawaiians was 38 and that for part-Hawaiians was 25. The infant death rate of part- Hawaiians remains significantly higher than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Japanese.
Other statistics show that part- Hawaiians have a birth rate of 2 3.1, compared to 17.5 for full-Hawaiians and 19.5 for the State. Part- Hawaiians and full-Hawaiians also have a significantly higher rate of illegitimate births than the other ethnic groups.
Native Hawaiians have historically had a lower life expectancy than other groups in Hawaii. This trend continues—in 1970, the native Hawaiian life expectancy was 67.62 years, compared with a total for the State of 74.20 years.
A study published by the State of Hawaii Department of Health examined mortality rates among full-Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians, and all other races in Hawaii from 1910 to 1980. The study concluded that:
- Part-Hawaiians' mortality rates for heart disease were generally higher than the "all races" group except for some years;
- Full-Hawaiians' mortality rates for heart disease were consistently higher than those for either of the other groups;
- Part-Hawaiians and the "all races" group had similar mortality rates fen cancer, while
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