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found in the Appendix. A comment received from John J. Hall states that: "Boundaries never changed, even after contact. Ahupua'a remained stationary, only alii moved...If warfare was as extensive as historians report, the environment would show the effects and the literature does not support such a situation." The quotation from Spaulding refers to boundaries pertaining to land under a particular chief and not to boundary changes of particular ahupua'a.

19/ For example, Congressman Daniel Akaka says that the Commission's early history of Hawaii "relies far too heavily on a comparison with the feudal structure such as it existed in Europe during the Middle Ages." Comments by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs note that: "It is important to note that the concept of fee-simple ownership of the land was unknown to Hawaiians. The alii...did not own the land..., they merely managed the land and other resources." Haunani-Kay Trask states that calling the Hawaiian system feudal, "is a false rendering of the Hawaiian land tenure system which did not include the following feudal structures--obligatory military service; bondage to the land; ownership by the kings and chiefs." [Emphasis in the original.]

20/ William Adam Russ, Jr., The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-1894) (Gettysburg, Pa.: Times and News Publishing Co., 1959), p. 30.

21/ Lawrence H. Fuchs, Hawaii Pono: A Social History (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961, p. 6.

22/ Jon J. Chinen, Original Land Titles in Hawaii (Honolulu: Jon J. en, 1961), p. 7.

23/ Malo, p. 88.

24/ Ibid, p. 85.

25/ See Draft Report of Findings, Native Hawaiians Study Commission, p. 107. Comments received from Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, state that: "Hawaiian commoners enjoyed more rights to the land in precontact Hawaii than under the private property system brought by the West." In another comment, Kawaipuna Prejean states that: "Our Alii was unlike the slave masters of Europe who expected the citizens of the soil to do all the work and keep the royalty in its opulence. The Chiefs of old, before falling victim to germ warfare deliberately introduced by the invaders to decimate the race, toiled in the earth with the Makaainana or citizens of the soil" (pp. 1-2). See also, Haunani-Kay Trask, "An Historical Over-view of Hawaii: Pre-Contact to the Present," a paper prepared at the direction of and funded by the Office of Hawaiians Affairs. This paper is reproduced in full in the Appendix of this Report.

26/ David Malo, quoted in Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 9.

27/ Liliuokalani, Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen (Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1964), p. 3.

28/ Chinen, Original Land Titles in Hawaii, p. 52. On various aspects of daily life, see also paper by Haunani-Kay Trask, "An Historical Over view of Hawaii."

29/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 9.

30/ Mitchell, p. 8.

31/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 8. Added as a result of comments received from Violet Ku'ulei Ihara. See also chapter below on "Native Hawaiian Religion," page 231.