Difference between revisions of "Template:Nhsc-v1-231"

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Lahainaluna scholars such as Samuel M.
 
Lahainaluna scholars such as Samuel M.
Kamakau, John Papa I ' i , Boaz Mahune,
+
Kamakau, John Papa I'i, Boaz Mahune,
 
and Timothy Keaweiwi) the following
 
and Timothy Keaweiwi) the following
 
account is given:
 
account is given:
The manner of worship of the kings
+
 
and chiefs was different from that
+
:The manner of worship of the kings and chiefs was different from that of the common people. When the commoners performed religious services they uttered their prayers themselves, without the assistance of a priest or of a <u>kahu-akua</u>. But when the king or an ali'i worshipped, the priest or the keeper of the idol uttered the prayers, while the ali'i only moved his lips and did not utter the prayers to their gods. <u>1</u>/
of the common people. When the
+
 
commoners performed religious
 
services they uttered their
 
prayers themselves, without the
 
assistance of a priest or of a
 
kahu-akua. But when the king or
 
an a l i ' i worshipped, the priest or
 
the keeper of the idol uttered the
 
prayers, while the a l i ' i only
 
moved his lips and did not utter
 
the prayers to their gods. 1/
 
 
It is expedient here to recognize
 
It is expedient here to recognize
 
that "assistance of a priest or a
 
that "assistance of a priest or a
kahu-akua" is the key phrase underscoring
+
<u>kahu-akua</u>" is the key phrase underscoring
 
the role of the organized
 
the role of the organized
 
priesthood in the formalized
 
priesthood in the formalized
Line 24: Line 14:
 
worship by chiefs. While worship of
 
worship by chiefs. While worship of
 
the gods by commoners was directed
 
the gods by commoners was directed
toward the identical akua 'aumakua,
+
toward the identical <u>akua 'aumakua</u>,
 
the role of the priests (if they
 
the role of the priests (if they
 
assisted the commoners in simpler
 
assisted the commoners in simpler
r i t e s on family shrines at a l l ) was
+
rites on family shrines at all) was
outside their o f f i c i a l governmental
+
outside their official governmental
capacity. The p o l i t i c a l aspect of the
+
capacity. The political aspect of the
 
chiefs and priests' religion can be
 
chiefs and priests' religion can be
 
seen in that the community system of
 
seen in that the community system of
 
religion sustained the authority of
 
religion sustained the authority of
 
the chief as an authority granted by
 
the chief as an authority granted by
the akua in lineal descent from the
+
the <u>akua</u> in lineal descent from the
akua, with the chief as a divine
+
<u>akua</u>, with the chief as a divine
ambodiraent of the akua in the world.
+
embodiment of the <u>akua</u> in the world.
 +
 
 
Thus, there were two systems of
 
Thus, there were two systems of
 
religion in ancient Hawaii: one set
 
religion in ancient Hawaii: one set
Line 42: Line 33:
 
worshipped the gods and where the
 
worshipped the gods and where the
 
rules of order were maintained by the
 
rules of order were maintained by the
priestly orders of Ku and Lono;
+
priestly orders of <u>Ku</u> and <u>Lono</u>;
 
another in which men and women worshipped
 
another in which men and women worshipped
 
the same gods as family
 
the same gods as family
 
guardians in everyday ceremonies, or
 
guardians in everyday ceremonies, or
 
as patron deities by occupational
 
as patron deities by occupational
groups* The society did not exempt
+
groups. The society did not exempt
 
the men from the established community
 
the men from the established community
worship of the great akua gods on the
+
worship of the great <u>akua</u> gods on the
s a c r i f i c i a l temple (luakini), but it
+
sacrificial temple (<u>luakini</u>), but it
 
exempted the women. Chiefesses
 
exempted the women. Chiefesses
 
worshipped at the Hale o Papa temple
 
worshipped at the Hale o Papa temple
(heiau) when services were held at the
+
(<u>heiau</u>) when services were held at the
heiau dedicated to Ku (one of the
+
<u>heiau</u> dedicated to <u>Ku</u> (one of the
 
major gods). All women in the society
 
major gods). All women in the society
 
observed the tabus on silence, eating,
 
observed the tabus on silence, eating,
 
and cohabitation when worship periods
 
and cohabitation when worship periods
 
were in effect on the major temples.
 
were in effect on the major temples.
 +
 
The year was organized into the
 
The year was organized into the
major ritual seasons by the Lono
+
major ritual seasons by the <u>Lono</u>
 
priesthood who kept the calendar
 
priesthood who kept the calendar
 
computations accurate by marking the
 
computations accurate by marking the
s o l s t i c e s , equinoxes, turning of the
+
solstices, equinoxes, turning of the
 
Milky Way during the months of the
 
Milky Way during the months of the
year, and by adjusting the e c l i p t i c to
+
year, and by adjusting the ecliptic to
 
the sidereal cycle of the Pleiades
 
the sidereal cycle of the Pleiades
 
from one November sighting in the
 
from one November sighting in the
east, at f i r s t rise after the f i r st
+
east, at first rise after the first
new moon, to another November. Heiau
+
new moon, to another November. <u>Heiau</u>
 
attendance by males in the community
 
attendance by males in the community
 
was compelled for eight months of the
 
was compelled for eight months of the
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per year, nine per month. The
 
per year, nine per month. The
 
required attendance was relaxed during
 
required attendance was relaxed during
the four-month makahiki season of
+
the four-month <u>makahiki</u> season of
Lono-i-ka-makahiki, when taxes were
+
<u>Lono-i-ka-makahiki</u>, when taxes were
collected and the f i r s t - f r u i ts
+
collected and the first-fruits
 
ceremonies enacted in honor of the god
 
ceremonies enacted in honor of the god
Lono-i-ka-makahiki. This makahiki
+
<u>Lono-i-ka-makahiki</u>. This <u>makahiki</u>
season took place in the f i r s t quarter
+
season took place in the first quarter
 
of the Hawaiian year, between the
 
of the Hawaiian year, between the
 
autumn equinox and the winter
 
autumn equinox and the winter
s o l s t i c e , ending when the Pleiades
+
solstice, ending when the Pleiades
 
came to zenith culmination. Exactly
 
came to zenith culmination. Exactly
 
ninety days, or three Hawaiian months,
 
ninety days, or three Hawaiian months,
 
could be computed between the first
 
could be computed between the first
 
sighting of the Pleiades in November
 
sighting of the Pleiades in November
and the end of the quarter called ke
+
and the end of the quarter called <u>ke
au o Makali'i, the quarter season of
+
au o Makali'i</u>, the quarter season of
 
the Pleiades year. These ninety days
 
the Pleiades year. These ninety days
equalled one-quarter of the e c l i p t i c,
+
equalled one-quarter of the ecliptic,
 
or the passage of the sun from one
 
or the passage of the sun from one
equinox to one s o l s t i c e.
+
equinox to one solstice.
 +
 
 
All of this was coordinated into a
 
All of this was coordinated into a
 
lunar calendar so that the nine tabu
 
lunar calendar so that the nine tabu
days called the la kapu kauila were
+
days called the <u>la kapu kauila</u> were
 
spaced out through the moon's synodic
 
spaced out through the moon's synodic
 
cycle of 29.5 nights per month
 
cycle of 29.5 nights per month
(mahina). During the waxing of the
+
(<u>mahina</u>). During the waxing of the
231
+
{{p|231}}

Latest revision as of 13:52, 15 April 2006

Lahainaluna scholars such as Samuel M. Kamakau, John Papa I'i, Boaz Mahune, and Timothy Keaweiwi) the following account is given:

The manner of worship of the kings and chiefs was different from that of the common people. When the commoners performed religious services they uttered their prayers themselves, without the assistance of a priest or of a kahu-akua. But when the king or an ali'i worshipped, the priest or the keeper of the idol uttered the prayers, while the ali'i only moved his lips and did not utter the prayers to their gods. 1/

It is expedient here to recognize that "assistance of a priest or a kahu-akua" is the key phrase underscoring the role of the organized priesthood in the formalized "community" organization of "national" worship by chiefs. While worship of the gods by commoners was directed toward the identical akua 'aumakua, the role of the priests (if they assisted the commoners in simpler rites on family shrines at all) was outside their official governmental capacity. The political aspect of the chiefs and priests' religion can be seen in that the community system of religion sustained the authority of the chief as an authority granted by the akua in lineal descent from the akua, with the chief as a divine embodiment of the akua in the world.

Thus, there were two systems of religion in ancient Hawaii: one set in which commoners and chiefs worshipped the gods and where the rules of order were maintained by the priestly orders of Ku and Lono; another in which men and women worshipped the same gods as family guardians in everyday ceremonies, or as patron deities by occupational groups. The society did not exempt the men from the established community worship of the great akua gods on the sacrificial temple (luakini), but it exempted the women. Chiefesses worshipped at the Hale o Papa temple (heiau) when services were held at the heiau dedicated to Ku (one of the major gods). All women in the society observed the tabus on silence, eating, and cohabitation when worship periods were in effect on the major temples.

The year was organized into the major ritual seasons by the Lono priesthood who kept the calendar computations accurate by marking the solstices, equinoxes, turning of the Milky Way during the months of the year, and by adjusting the ecliptic to the sidereal cycle of the Pleiades from one November sighting in the east, at first rise after the first new moon, to another November. Heiau attendance by males in the community was compelled for eight months of the year, divided into seventy-two days per year, nine per month. The required attendance was relaxed during the four-month makahiki season of Lono-i-ka-makahiki, when taxes were collected and the first-fruits ceremonies enacted in honor of the god Lono-i-ka-makahiki. This makahiki season took place in the first quarter of the Hawaiian year, between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice, ending when the Pleiades came to zenith culmination. Exactly ninety days, or three Hawaiian months, could be computed between the first sighting of the Pleiades in November and the end of the quarter called ke au o Makali'i, the quarter season of the Pleiades year. These ninety days equalled one-quarter of the ecliptic, or the passage of the sun from one equinox to one solstice.

All of this was coordinated into a lunar calendar so that the nine tabu days called the la kapu kauila were spaced out through the moon's synodic cycle of 29.5 nights per month (mahina). During the waxing of the

-p231-