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Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations *

As traced in the legislative history of measures preceding the establishment of the Native Hawaiians Study Commission (NHSC), the Congress wished to be advised about:

1) whether a wrong had been committed by the United States against the Native Hawaiian people; and
2) what appropriate actions could be recommended to remedy such a wrong.

It is the major finding of this Commission, after an examination of available governmental and historical records, that such a wrong did occur. The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai'i, the loss of Native Hawaiian domain and dominion, and accompanying social and cultural disruption among Native Hawaiians are consequences of that wrong.

Nature of the Wrong. After a review of the documents and on-hand descriptions of the actions and events which culminated in the overthrow of the Kinqdom of Hawai'i, we find that:

  • the United States, and its officers in the State and Navy Departments, did incite and encourage treason against the legitimate government of the Kingdom of Hawai'i;
  • American diplomatic and military authorization of support to a numerically-small band of insurgents emboldened and, ultimately, directed their actions against the legal government of Hawai'i in 1893;
  • this domestic insurgence against the Queen and her government lacked popular support, did not have sufficient arms to succeed unaided, and would have failed without the acts of the United States;
  • the diplomatic and military intervention of the United States in support of the insurgents contituted a breech of international law, of existing treaties of friendship and trade with the Kingdom, and was an illegal and immoral act of war against an independent nation and her people; and
  • these actions by the United States compelled the Queen of Hawai'i to suspend her authority and that of her government to the United States, pending appropriate review.


Based on these findings, we recommend that:

  • the Congress of the United States, by Joint Resolution, clearly acknowledge the role and actions of the United States in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai'i, and indicate its commitment to grant restitution for the losses and

  • / This is the substitute

presented at the March 3, 1983 meeting of the Native Hawaiians Study Commission by three Native Hawaiians Study Commissioners (see above, "Approach and Methodology"). It is reproduced here unchanged.